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Early Indic eschatology : hierarchical structures and vilification in hell literature

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Travis, Travis Navarro




Master of Arts in Religious Studies


Chu, William
Capitanio, Joshua
Shakya, Miroj


This thesis explores the early Indic concept of hell and how it can be used in the study of religious morality. There is a brief discussion of how the early Indic concept of hell evolves from a pit where persons are sent for acts against the gods, to a place of moral retribution. Next there is an in-depth analysis of the Buddhist Sutta Piṭaka in order to illustrate hierarchical structures generated from over eighty two suttas. By looking at the kammic misdeeds that are deemed most unforgivable on a hierarchical scale, three figures arise who are vilified in Early Buddhist literature. From this analysis, I am able to draw conclusions that may be used to help understand early Buddhist morality.

Degree Granter

University of the West



Library Holding