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Coming to terms with Zhiyi's Buddhānusmṛti : a critical reading of Zhiyi's theory in dynamic mind


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Doctor of Philosophy in Religious Studies


Long, Darui
Lancaster, Lewis R.
Ziporyn, Brook A.


Zhiyi is the founder of Tiantai School. Among his works, the abundant teachings and meditation systems are discussed; for example, Three Truths, Five Period of Time, Eight Teachings, Three Contemplations, etc. In this dissertation, I will focus on Zhiyi’s opinions about the mind. I utilize Ten Thusnesses 十如是 to structure my dissertation. The Ten Thusnesses does not appear in the Lotus Sūtra in Sanskrit edition, but in the translation of Kumārajīva’s Chinese edition. In an accurate way, the Ten Thusnesses come from Mahā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra 大般若波羅蜜多經, and the Dazhidu Lun (Mahāprajñāpāramitā-śāstra); but not Lotus Sūtra.

I discuss Zhiyi’s dynamic mind with in the intention of mind, the extension of mind, the causes of Zhiyi’s opinions about dynamic mind, the natures of Zhiyi’s opinions about dynamic mind, Zhiyi’s opinions about dynamic mind and Buddhānusmṛti ( mindfulness of Buddha), and at last Zhiyi’s opinion about Buddhānusmṛti and Amitābha Buddha’s Pure Land. The methodology of my dissertation is textual, philosophical, and historical analysis.

My primary sources will include the Lotus Sūtra [Saddharmapuṇḍarīka-sūtra], the Dazhidu Lun [Mahāprajñāpāramitā-śāstra], Weimojing Xuan Shu 維摩經玄疏, Fahua Xuanyi 法華玄義, Fahua Wenju 法華文句, Mohe Zhiguan 摩訶止觀, Guanyin Xuanyi 觀音玄義, Weimojing Wenshu 維摩經文句, Weimojing Lueshu 維摩經略疏, Jinguangming Jing Wenju 金光明經文句, Jinguangming Xuanyi 金光明經玄義, Qing Guanyin Jing Shu 請觀音疏, Shi Chanboluomi Cidi Famen 釋禪波羅蜜次第法門, Fahua Sanmei Chanyi 法華三昧懺儀, etc.

The contribution of this dissertation is to re-evaluate Zhiyi’s teaching and meditation systems and how Zhiyi utilizes the mind to lead to mindfulness of Buddha in an applied and salvational tone. In addition, believably it may perhaps be said that Zhiyi’s mindfulness of Buddha is one of the important teachings of his (Zhiyi’s), which modern scholars do not pay much attention to this.

Degree Granter

University of the West



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